After getting the difficult diagnosis of cancer, the first question most patients ask is what their treatment options are.
This will depend on many factors, including the type of cancer, and how advanced it is.
When it comes to kidney cancer, patients who have stage one or two are most likely to be booked in for surgery.
This is the most assured way of removing the tumour from the body, as surgeons will extract it, and any surrounding tissue that could be infected.
Though surgery is invasive, doctors will try to leave as much of the kidney as possible, so the organ can continue to function post-surgery.
However, if the tumour is bigger than 7 cm, they often decide to remove the entire kidney, as this will give the patient the best chance of fighting the cancer.
Some people cannot have surgery for their kidney cancer, including those who are not fit enough, have medical problems, or have an early-stage cancer.
In these cases, they could undergo radiofrequency ablation (RFA), which uses radio waves to remove the cancer cells.
Another option is cryotherapy, freezing the cancer cells instead, and thereby killing them.
Those with stage three kidney cancer could opt for the surgery in certain circumstances.
Alternatively, they could have systemic therapy, taking medication to target the cancer cells. This is administered either through a drip or as a tablet.
If given kidney cancer treatment promptly, the chances of beating it dramatically increase.
According to Cancer Research UK, 85 per cent of those with stage one cancer survive for more than five years following their diagnosis. The figure is still very high for stage two and three patients at 75 per cent.